How to Identify Live Sand Dollars

live dead and fossil sand dollars

One of the first rules of collecting on the beach is to make sure when you take something home, you’re not taking anything that’s still alive. You should always make sure there’s not something still making a home in any shells you collect, make sure barnacles aren’t still living when you head home, and make sure you don’t take any live sand dollars.

sand dollar in the mud

Sand dollar is the common name for sea urchins in the order Clypeasteroida, who are relatively flat and burrow in the sand. It’s actually really easy to tell if a sand dollar is alive or if what you’ve found is just its “test,” or bony skeleton.

sand dollar kinds

When sand dollars are alive, they are covered with a coating of cilia, small hairlike feet that help the sand dollar move and bury itself in the sand. These tiny spines move when the animal is still alive, so if you hold a sand dollar in your hand and feel the spines moving, it is living. The spines also give the sand dollar a dark color ranging from brown to grey to purple and red. Finally, some sand dollars will leave a yellowish stain on your hands if you hold a live specimen. This harmless substance called echinochrome is another sign that you should return the critter to the water.

sand dollar species

Sand dollars can’t survive out of the water, so if you find a live one, put it gently back in the water. If you find a sand dollar on the beach, it is probably no longer alive and it is ok to take. Even sand dollars that look grey or tan in color are dead if they have no tiny coating of furry spines on them. And, if you find one that is rock-hard and unbreakable, you’re lucky enough to have found a sand dollar fossil, which is a sand dollar that is definitely dead!

san dollar skeleton

This article appeared in the Beachcombing Magazine May/June 2019 issue.

No live shelling: Be sure shells are empty and sand dollars, sea stars, and sea urchins are no longer alive before you bring them home.

Sand dollar fossils are not the only fossils from ancient seas found on beaches

Learn more about seashells

nature and history of seashells and collecting

Learn more about identifying shells, the history of seashell collecting, great shelling beaches, and the lives of the animals who make the shells we find on the beach. Articles ›

Learn more about beach fossils:

beach fossil identification locations history

Learn more about fossils found on modern and ancient shores around the world. Articles ›


I never knew how to tell whether a sand dollar was dead or alive. I just always turned them up the right way. Now I know. Thank you. I’m from Nelson, New Zealand and our local Tahunanui Beach has plenty.

Wendy-Diann August 12, 2023


Mary Goodman October 11, 2021

Thank you! Ive lived in FL for over 20 years and still somehow knew next to nothing before reading this blog post. Since I’d never felt the need to bring one home one way or the other, Ive always believed unless its bleached white, better to be safe and just leave it since it may still be alive. Its good to now know that color is no is not always the best indicator for determining rather they are still alive or not.

Sonya September 26, 2021

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